Acholi 746,796 in Uganda (1991 census). Population includes 12,089 speakers of Chopi, (1972 Ladefoged et al.). Population total all countries: 791,796. North central Acholi District. Also spoken in Sudan. Alternate names: Acoli, Atscholi, Shuli, Gang, Lwo, Lwoo, Akoli, Acooli, Log Acoli, Dok Acoli. Dialects: Labwor, Nyakwai, Dhopaluo (Chopi, Chope). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi

Adhola 247,577 (1986). Eastern, Mbale District. Not in Kenya. Alternate names: Dhopadhola, Jopadhola, Ludama. Dialects: The most distinct of the Western Nilotic languages in Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola

Alur 459,000 in Uganda (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). North of Lake Albert. Alternate names: Lur, Luri, Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur. Dialects: Jokot, Jonam, Mambisa, Wanyoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur

Amba 16,000 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 20,500. Ethnic population: 62,926 (1991 census). Democratic Republic of the Congo border south of Lake Albert, Beni District, Watalinga and Bawisa subcounties, Ruwenzori Mountains, Bundibugyo District. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Kwamba, Kuamba, Ku-Amba, Rwamba, Lwamba, Hamba, Lubulebule, Ruwenzori Kibira, Humu, Kihumu. Dialects: Kyanzi (Kihyanzi), Suwa (Kusuwa). Close to Bera, Bila, Komo, Bhele. Lexical similarity 70% with Bera, 57% to 59% with Bila, Kaiku, Komo, and Bhele, 25% with Nande, 34% with Talinga-Bwisi may indicate convergence. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30)

Aringa 588,830 (1991 census). Northwest corner, north of Lake Albert, Aringa county, north of Lugbara, west of Ma’di. Not in Sudan. Alternate names: Low Lugbara. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central

Bari 60,000 in Uganda. Northwest corner. Alternate names: Beri. Dialects: Kuku, Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Pajulu, Fadjulu, Fajulu, Fajelu), Nyangbara (Nyangwara, Nyambara), Mondari (Mandari, Mundari). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari

Chiga 1,391,442 (1991 census). Extreme southwest, Ankole District, Western Province. Alternate names: Oluchiga, Orukiga, Ciga, Kiga, Rukiga. Dialects: 72% intelligible of Nyankore. Lexical similarity 84% to 94% with Nyankore, 77% with Nyoro, 75% with Zinza, 72% with Nyambo, 70% with Haya, 68% with Tooro, 63% with Kerewe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

English Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

Ganda 3,015,980 (1991 census). Southeast, from the northwest shore of Lake Victoria to Lake Kyoga and the Tanzania border; primarily Buganda Province. Alternate names: Luganda. Dialects: Kooki (Olukooki), Sese (Olusese), Luvuma, Ludiopa. Luvuma, Ludiope may be dialects. Lexical similarity 71% to 86% with Soga, 68% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Gujarati 147,000 in Uganda (1986). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati

Gungu 65,000 (2000). Hoima and Masindi districts, primarily along the northeast shore of Lake Albert in the Rift Valley, Buliisa, Bilso, and Kigorobya subcounties. Also in the hills above the valley. Alternate names: Rugungu, Lugungu. Dialects: 58% or lower inherent intelligibility of Nyoro-Tooro. Tooro is the closest language. Lexical similarity 65% with Tooro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Gwere 275,608 (1991 census). Pallisa District, dominating 2 of the district’s 4 counties. Alternate names: Lugwere, Olugwere. Dialects: Closest to Lusiki in vocabulary. Lexical similarity 68% with Ganda, 64% with Soga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Hindi 2,200 in Uganda (1994). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani

Ik 2,000 (1972 C. Turnbull). Northeast part of Karamoja. Alternate names: Icietot, Teuso, Teuth, Ngulak. Dialects: It is very different from other Eastern Sudanic languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ik

Kakwa 86,472 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 146,472. Northwest corner, West Nile District. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan. Alternate names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kwakwak. Dialects: Dialects of Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda differ little (Nida). Very different from other Eastern Nilotic languages of Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari

Karamojong 370,000 (1994 UBS). Population includes 50,000 Jie (1986 MARC). East and northeast, Karamojo District around Moroto. Alternate names: Karimojong, Karimonjong. Dialects: Karamojong, Jie (Jiye), Dodos (Dodoth). The dialects have 83% to 95% lexical similarity. Lexical similarity 85% with Turkana, 75% with Teso. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana

Kenyi 390,115. Between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga, Busoga Province. Alternate names: Lukenyi. Dialects: Welmers lists Olusoga and Lukenyi separately. Lexical similarity 81% with Soga, 71% to 86% with Ganda, 64% with Gwere, 58% with Saamia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)
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Konjo 361,709 in Uganda (1992 census). Southwest, Ruwenzori Mountains. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Rukonjo, Olukonjo, Konzo, Olukonzo, Lhukonzo. Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza), Rukonjo. Many dialects. Lexical similarity 77% with Nande. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (J.40)

Kumam 112,629 (1991 census). South of Lake Kwania, western Teso District. Alternate names: Kuman, Ikokolemu, Kumum, Ikumama, Akum, Akokolemu. Dialects: Lexical similarity 82% with Dhopaluo, 81% with Lango, 77% with Acholi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman

Kupsabiny 120,000 (1994 UBS). Eastern border area slightly north of Mbale, Sebei Province. Alternate names: Sebei, Sapei. Dialects: Sabiny (Sapiny, Kupsabiny, Kupsapiny), Mbai, Sor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon

Lango 977,680 (1991 census). 5.6% of population (1972 Ladefoged et al.). Central, north of Lake Kyoga, Lango Province. Alternate names: Lwo, Lwoo, Leb-Lano, Langi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi

Lendu 10,000 in Uganda (2002 SIL). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu

Lugbara 200,000 in Uganda (1983 SIL). Population includes 140,000 in Arua, 60,000 in Maracha and Terego. Population total all countries: 1,040,000. Northwest, west Nile District. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: High Lugbara. Dialects: Arua (Standard Lugbara), Maracha, Terego (Omugo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central

Luyia 225,378 in Uganda (1991 census). Population includes 10,000 Songa, 40,074 of Lugwe. Lake Victoria area near Kenya border. Alternate names: Luluyia, Luhya. Dialects: Saamia, Songa, Lugwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30), Luyia

Ma’di 130,558 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 148,558. Northwestern Sudan border area near Nimule, West Nile District, Madi Province, Madi Subdistrict, and Madi County. Moyo is in the west, Adjumani in the east. Also spoken in Sudan. Alternate names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti. Dialects: Moyo, Adjumani (Oyuwi). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern

Ma’di, Southern 48,000 (1983 SIL). Okollo County, on the west bank of the Nile River. Okollo town is the administrative center. Alternate names: Southern Ma’di. Dialects: Okollo, Ogoko, Rigbo. Closer to Lugbara than to Madi (Moyo), which they do not understand. Ogoko and Rigbo are closer to Lugbara than Okollo is; intelligibility testing needed. Okollo dialect is considered more ‘pure’ than the others. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern
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Masaba 751,253 (1991 census). Eastern, south of the Kupsabiny, Bugisu Province. Alternate names: Lumasaba, Masaaba, Gisu, Lugisu. Dialects: Ulubukusu, Ulubuya, Uludadiri, Lugisu (Gishu), Ulukisu, Syan. Syan is a related dialect or language. Lexical similarity 62% with Saamia, 52% with Isuxa, 50% with Ragooli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30)

Ndo 200,000 in Uganda (1994 UBS). Population total all countries: 300,000. Northwestern. Mahigi is the center. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Kebu, Oke’bu, Ndu. Dialects: Avari (Aviritu, Avere), Oke’bu (Ndo Oke’bu, Kebutu, Kebu), Membi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe
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Nubi 14,739 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 24,739. Bombo, 30 miles north of Kampala, Arua, and elsewhere in Uganda. Also spoken in Kenya. Alternate names: Kinubi, Ki-Nubi. Dialects: Descendants of Emin Pasha’s troops. Formerly a soldier language, which split off from Sudanese Pidgin Arabic about 1900.There are conflicting reports of intelligibility of Sudanese Creole Arabic. 90% of the lexicon comes from Arabic. 90% of the lexicon is from Arabic. Classification: Creole, Arabic based

Nyankore 1,643,193 (1991 census). Population includes 141,668 Hororo, 1,643,193 Hima. Western Province, Ankole District, east of Lake Edward. Alternate names: Nkole, Nyankole, Runyankole, Ulunyankole, Ulunyankore. Dialects: Hororo, Orutagwenda, Hima. Hima may be a separate language. Nyankore, Nyoro, and their dialects are considered by some to be one language (lexical similarity 78% to 96%). Lexical similarity 84% to 94% with Chiga, 75% to 86% with Tooro (Nyoro), 81% with Zinza, 78% with Nyambo, 74% with Haya, 68% with Kerewe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Nyole 228,918 (1991 census). Southeast Uganda in Tororo District. Alternate names: Nyule, Nyuli, Lunyole. Dialects: Menya (Lumenya), Hadyo (Luhadyo), Sabi (Lusabi), Wesa (Luwesa). Lexical similarity 70% to 80% with the Saamia dialect of Luyia, 82% with the Lugwe dialect of Luyia, 67% with Ganda, 61% with Nyore of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30)

Nyoro 495,443 (1991 census). South and southeast of Lake Albert, Bunyoro and Toro provinces. Alternate names: Runyoro. Dialects: Rutagwenda, Orunyoro (Nyoro). 73% inherent intelligibility of Gungu. Hema-Sud (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity 78% to 93% with Toro, 77% with Nyankore and Ciga, 67% with Nyambo and Zinza, 66% with Haya, 62% with Kerewe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Pökoot East central, near Kupsabiny. Alternate names: Pokot, Pakot, Suk. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot

Ruli 68,010 (1991 census). East of Nyoro. Alternate names: Ruruli, Luduuli. Dialects: Eastern Ruli, Western Ruli. Nakasongola (east) is influenced by Ganda, and in Kuyanoongo (west) by Nyoro. Lexical similarity 79% between Eastern and Western Ruli, 71% with Nyoro (closest), 70% between Eastern Ruli and Ganda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Rundi 100,903 in Uganda (1991 census). Most in Buganda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60)

Rwanda 532,692 in Uganda (1991 census). Population includes 203,030 speakers of Rufumbira, 329,662 Rwanda, 1,394 Twa. Southwestern border with Rwanda. The largest group in Kisoro District. Alternate names: Runyarwanda, Ruanda. Dialects: Rufumbira, Twa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60)

Soga 1,370,845 (1991 census). Between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga, Busoga Province. Lutenga is around Jjinja, Lulamogi farther north. Alternate names: Lusoga, Olusoga. Dialects: Tenga (Lutenga), Lamogi (Lulamogi), Gabula (Lugabula). Welmers lists Soga and Kenyi separately. Lexical similarity 81% with Kenyi, 71% to 86% with Ganda, 64% with Gwere, 58% with Saamia. Tenga has 82% with Ganda. Lamogi dialect has 79% to 82% lexical similarity with Tenga, 89% with Siki, 88% with Soga, 82% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Soo 5,000 (1972 Ladefoged et al.). Karamoja District of eastern Uganda on Mt. Moroto on Kenya border. Alternate names: So, Tepeth, Tepes. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So

Swahili 2,330 in Uganda (2000 WCD). Alternate names: Kiswahili, Kisuaheli. Dialects: Shamba (Kishamba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)

Talinga-Bwisi 53,467 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 84,357. Democratic Republic of the Congo border, Bwamba County, Bundibugyo District, southwest of Fort Portal, between Albert and Edward Lakes, immediately next to the Democratic Republic of the Congo border, near Kilembe. Also spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Olubwisi, Bwissi, Mawissi, Lubwissi. Dialects: 68% inherent intelligibility of Tooro. Lexical similarity 73% with Tooro, 72% with Nyoro, 40% with Nande. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20)

Teso 999,537 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total all countries: 1,278,537. Sorot and Kumi regions, southeast, Teso Province. Lokathan live around Madial at the north end of the Nangeya Mountains. Also spoken in Kenya. Alternate names: Ateso, Ikumama, Bakedi, Bakidi, Etossio, Elgumi, Wamia. Dialects: Lokathan (Biri, Ketebo), Orom (Rom). Limited intelligibility of other varieties in the Teso-Turkana group. The dialect in Ngoro is considered standard. Lexical similarity 76% with Turkana, 75% with Karamojong. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso

Tooro 488,024 (1991 census). South and southeast of Lake Albert, Toro Province. Alternate names: Rutooro, Orutoro, Rutoro, Toro. Dialects: Tuku. Hema-Sud (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity 78% to 93% with Nyoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)

Ugandan Sign Language All over Uganda, but mainly in the towns. Alternate names: USL. Classification: Deaf sign language

Extinct languages
Nyang’i Extinct. Ethnic population: 100 or fewer. Eastern Uganda. Alternate names: Nuangeya, Nyuangia, Nyangiya, Nyangia, Ngangea, Gyangiya, Nyangeya, Ngiangeya, Nipori, Niporen, Poren, Ngapore, Upale. Dialects: A separate language from Ik. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So

Singa Extinct. Rusinga Island. Alternate names: Lusinga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10)